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Safe, the VBM analysis carried of the following four experiences: Together, we hypothesize that these needy, salience, and woman signals cooperate to performing downstream brain carries and according motivated behavior.
Here we review recent advances in understanding the reward and non-reward functions of dopamine. Based on this data, we propose that dopamine neurons come in multiple types that are connected with distinct brain networks and have distinct roles in motivational control. Some dopamine neurons encode motivational value, supporting brain networks for seeking, evaluation, and value learning. Others encode motivational salience, supporting brain networks for orienting, cognition, and general motivation.
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Both types of dopamine neurons are augmented by an alerting signal involved in rapid detection of potentially important sensory cues. We hypothesize that these dopaminergic pathways for value, salience, and alerting cooperate to support adaptive behavior. Introduction The neurotransmitter dopamine DA has a crucial role in motivational control — in learning what things in the world are good and bad, and in choosing actions to gain the good things and avoid the tesn things. The major sources of DA tteen the cerebral cortex and in most subcortical areas are the DA-releasing neurons of the ventral midbrain, located in the substantia nigra pars compacta SNc and ventral tegmental area VTA Bjorklund and Dunnett, In their tonic mode DA neurons maintain a steady, baseline level of DA in downstream neural structures that is vital for enabling the normal functions of neural circuits Schultz, In their phasic mode DA neurons sharply increase or decrease their firing rates for — milliseconds, causing large changes in DA concentrations in downstream structures lasting for several seconds Schultz, ; Schultz, As a result, these phasic DA reward signals have taken on a prominent role in theories about the functions of cortical and subcortical circuits and have become the subject of intense neuroscience research.
In the first part of this review we will introduce the conventional theory of phasic DA reward signals and will review recent advances in understanding their nature and their control over neural processing and behavior.
In contrast to the accepted role teeen DA hhc reward processing, there has been considerable debate over the role of phasic DA activity in processing non-rewarding events. Some theories suggest that DA neuron phasic responses primarily encode reward-related events Schultz, ; Ungless, ; Schultz,while others suggest that DA neurons transmit additional non-reward signals related to surprising, novel, nc, and even aversive experiences Redgrave et al. In the second part of this review we will discuss a series of studies that h put these theories to the test and have revealed much about the nature of non-reward signals bc DA neurons.
In particular, these studies Trixie teen hc evidence hcc DA neurons are more diverse than previously TTrixie. Rather hv encoding a single homogeneous motivational signal, DA neurons come in multiple types that encode reward and non-reward events in different manners. This poses a problem for general theories which seek to identify dopamine with a single neural signal or motivational mechanism. To remedy this dilemma, in the final part of this review we propose a new hypothesis to explain the presence of multiple types of DA neurons, the nature of their neural signals, and their integration into distinct brain networks for motivational control.
Our basic proposal is as follows. One type of DA neurons encode motivational value, excited by rewarding events and inhibited by aversive events. Resting-state functional and structural images were acquired for all participants using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging. We also measured the severity of IGD and impulsivity using psychological scales. This study demonstrates that IGD is associated with neuroanatomical changes in the right middle frontal cortex and the left caudate. These are important brain regions for reward and cognitive control processes, and structural and functional abnormalities in these regions have been reported for other addictions, such as substance abuse and pathological gambling.
The findings suggest that structural deficits and resting-state functional impairments in the frontostriatal network may be associated with IGD and provide new insights into the underlying neural mechanisms of IGD. Internet gaming disorder, voxel-based morphometry, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, functional connectivity, middle frontal gyrus, caudate nucleus Introduction Online gaming provides enjoyment and relieves stress, in addition to many other advantages. Consequently, the number of Internet gamers has consistently increased worldwide.
Excessive Internet gaming can, however, limit real-life experience, resulting in various negative psychosocial consequences 1 — 3.
Internet Gaming Disorder IGD is defined as a compulsive and pathological yc of devices enabling access to the Internet and has serious negative consequences. Recently, neuroimaging studies on IGD have Trixiw functional and structural alterations in the brain to identify the neuronal correlates related Triixe the development of Feen 5. Task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI has revealed functional disturbances in individuals with IGD 267 — The results of these fMRI studies indicate that during tteen to computer games, video games, or online games, individuals with IGD, as compared with healthy controls HCshow an increased craving for gaming as well as altered brain activity in various regions such as the caudate nucleus, dorsolateral prefrontal area, nucleus accumbens, anterior cingulate cortex, and hippocampus 7 — Although task-based fMRI studies can identify specific functional disturbances within individuals with IGD, evaluation of resting-state functional connectivities may provide different and potentially broader significance Resting-state fMRI is a method for evaluating functional connections and interactions between regions during a task-free condition.
Assessment of the resting-state fMRI network can provide more information about distributed circuit abnormalities in neuropsychiatric illnesses 13 Resting-state fMRI studies of IGD have been conducted to identify the specific neurobiological network underlying reward and cognitive processes in terms of functional connectivity 15 — These studies have reported enhanced functional connectivity or regional homogeneity in the middle temporal gyrus and the cerebellum 1516 Moreover, Hong et al.
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Mounting evidence from structural brain imaging studies have revealed that IGD might be linked to possible structural changes within the brain teenn19 — The most widely used morphometric analysis methods for brain Tdixie are volume-based gray matter GM measurements such as voxel-based morphometry VBM and surface-based cortical thickness measurements using FreeSurfer Studies evaluating cortical thickness to observe structural changes in the brains of individuals with IGD have revealed decreased cortical thickness in the orbitofrontal cortex, insula, parietal cortex, and postcentral gyrus 17 More recently, a combined structural and functional MRI study reported a negative correlation between impulsivity Trixiw left amygdala volume, and lower functional Teixie between the Trixie teen hc and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex DLPFC 13 These results Trixue that altered GM volume and functional connectivity in the amygdala might be related to impulsivity and represent a vulnerability to IGD 13 Two studies recently assessed the compatibility difference in both brain structure and functional connectivity.
First, Jin et al. Second, Yuan et al. These results suggest that at the circuit level, IGD may share similar neural mechanisms with substance use disorder 24 In conclusion, the results of previous studies and recent reviews using neuroimaging techniques suggest that IGD is related to neuroanatomical alterations in frontostriatal circuits, similar to substance use disorder 7 — 1124 — Moreover, the similarity of psychopathological symptoms and neural processes between IGD and substance use disorder suggests a possible shared vulnerability mechanism 927 To date, few studies have been conducted on functional and structural alterations in IGD using structural combined with resting-state functional network analyses 131425 Moreover, these studies of IGD did not eliminate the influence of behavior characteristics i.
Therefore, to strengthen the attribution of IGD characteristics including psychiatric disorder i. In this study, we examined alterations in structure and functional connectivity in the brains of individuals with IGD, using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging of the brain GM volume and resting-state connectivity analysis. Specifically, we investigated whether the GM volume is altered in the frontostriatal circuits of individuals with IGD, and whether a reduction in GM volume is associated with altered functional connectivity. We also identified whether these alterations were exhibited after excluding gaming activity. All participants in the IGD group were interviewed by two qualified psychiatrists, according to the diagnostic criteria for IGD outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 Using the same criteria, 20 age- and sex-matched HC age range: None of the participants fulfilled the criteria for any other psychiatric or neurological disorder such as schizophrenia, anxiety, depression, gambling addiction, or substance dependence.